What is Knee Replacement Surgery?

Knee replacement surgery also known as knee arthroplasty surgery is a surgery that is generally performed when the person suffers from a specific medical condition called arthritis, or it can also be due to reasons like ligament tear, cartilage defects, and major fractures in the area that call for the replacement. It is a procedure to improve or partially and fully remove the surfaces of the knee that reduces the pain, removes the disability, and creates longevity for the knee in movement and flexibility.

Why Would One Need Knee Replacement Surgery?

The breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone is called Osteoarthritis which is the main reason for knee replacement surgery. The age-related condition is very common and it occurs when cartilage the cushion between the knee and the bone joints breaks down. Other reasons include:
1. Rheumatoid arthritis: The body’s immune system attacks and destroys the lining of the knee.
2. Deformities: People with bowed legs or “knock-knees” often get surgery to restore the position of the knee.
3. Knee injuries: A broken bone or torn ligaments around the knee sometimes result in arthritis that causes great pain and limits your movement.

Types of Knee Replacement Surgery

Knee Replacement surgeries are complicated procedures that have to be handled with an equal amount of care and precision. The Knee Replacement surgery types are

  1. Total Knee Replacement
  2. Partial Knee Replacement
  3. Patellofemoral Replacement
  4. Complex Knee Replacement
  5. Cartilage Restoration

1. Total Knee Replacement

This is the most common traditional method used by doctors to treat (Knee Replacement Surgery) a damaged knee, the surgeon replaces the surfaces of the thigh bone and shin bone that connects to the knee. The total knee replacement can function as a natural knee after the surgery is done and can be customized enough even to work and fit every kind of body type the way you want it to respectively. The surgeon accomplishes a four-step process in this replacement.

  • At first, the bone and the cartilage are prepared and removed, 
  • The second step is the fitting and fixing of the implants onto the area or the bone either attaching it or making it happen naturally. 
  • The third step is to fix a plastic button below the kneecap, 
  • The final step is the surgeon inserts and fixes a plastic spacer between the knee and the femur (thigh bone) to accomplish the smooth functioning of the knee. 

The last step should be done with a proper alignment, then, the bone must be carefully fitted for proper movement.

2. Partial Knee Replacement

The partial knee surgery is only applicable and suggested for individuals who have strong knee ligaments to withstand the surgery as only the infected and the least part is replaced keeping most of the natural bone, ligaments, and tissues in place for the rest of the bodily movements. If arthritis affects only one side of your knee, this surgery may be a possibility. Partial knee replacement can be performed through a smaller cut than is needed for total knee replacement. The surgeon removes the arthritic (stiffness in joints) and then replaces that area with either metal or plastic.

3. Patellofemoral Replacement

This can be very effective for people with chronic kneecap arthritis that replaces only the under-surface of the kneecap

4. Complex Knee Replacement

This procedure may be needed if you have very severe arthritis or if you’ve already had two or three knee replacement surgeries.

5. Cartilage Restoration

Sometimes when the knee has an isolated area of injury the area can be replaced with a living cartilage graft or cells which grow into cartilage.

Knee Replacement Surgery: Conclusion

The other approaches include Computer Assisted Surgery and Minimally Invasive Surgery which aren’t a method of surgery but more like an approach, but this is used in modern science because of reliability.

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